Definitions for xylariales
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Xylariales is an order of fungi within the class Sordariomycetes, subphylum Pezizomycotina, phylum Ascomycota. It is the only order of the subclass Xylariomycetidae. Xylariales Nannf., Nova Acta Reg. Soc. Sci. Upsal. Ser. IV. 8: 66 is characterised by the possession of well-developed stromata, perithecial ascomata that are mainly globose, superficial or immersed in a stroma, cylindrical asci with amyloid apical apparatus ranging in form from a simple disk to complex ring systems, typically brown ascospores with germ pores or slits, and hyphomycetous holoblastic anamorphs. Members of this Order are mostly wood inhabitants but they also occur on animal dung, fruits, leaves, litter, seeds, soil or are associated with insects. Their distribution, although cosmopolitan, is very well represented in tropical host plants and many occur as endophytes. Nannfeldt was the first taxonomist to provide a well-defined classification system for taxonomy. He included six families within the Xylariales — the Diatrypaceae, Hypocreaceae, Hyponectriaceae, Lasiosphaeriaceae, Polystigmataceae and Xylariaceae, with the last family designated as the type family. Since the work of Nannfeldt, there have been different views regarding the placement of families within the Xylariales, mainly due to emphasis of different morphological and developmental characters. Luttrell restricted the Xylariales to those taxa with a Xylaria-type centrum and provided a broad definition of the Order. He included six families, the Chaetomiaceae, Clavicipitaceae, Diatrypaceae, Phyllachoraceae, Pyrenulaceae, and Xylariaceae. Later, Wehmeyer provided a much clearer definition of Xylariaceae which was more in line with current concepts. Unfortunately, delimitation of families within Xylariales was still far from the current classification scheme. Barr, in her Prodomus to nonlichenized pyrenomycetous members of Class Hymenoascomycetes, provided a very broad concept of the Xylariales, accepting 11 families — the Acrospermaceae, Amphisphaeriaceae, Boliniaceae, Clypeosphaeriaceae, Diatrypaceae, Hyponectriaceae, Melogrammataceae, Phyllachoraceae, Thyridiaceae, Trichosphaeriacae and Xylariaceae.
U.S. National Library of Medicine
An order of ascomycetous FUNGI which includes many economically important plant parasites as well as saprophytes.
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