Definitions for voltmeter, cardew
The Standard Electrical Dictionary
A voltmeter in which the current passing through its conductor heats such conductor, causing it to expand. Its expansion is caused to move an index needle. By calibration the movements of the needle are made to correspond to the potential differences producing the actuating currents through it. The magnetic action of the current plays no part in its operation. It is the invention of Capt. Cardew, R. E. The construction of the instrument in one of its most recent forms is shown in the cut. On each side of the drum-like case of the instrument are the binding screws. These connect with the blocks m and n. To these the fine wire conductor is connected and is carried down and up over the two pulleys seen at the lowest extremity, its centre being attached to c. From c a wire is carried to the drum p, shown on an enlarged scale on the left of the cut. A second wire from the same drum or pulley connects to the spring S. The winding of the two wires is shown in the separate figure of c, where it is seen that they are screwed fast to the periphery of the little drum, and are virtually continuations of each other. By the screw A the tension of the spring S is adjusted. On the shaft of the little drum p is a pinion, which works into the teeth of the cog-wheel r. The shaft of r is extended through the dial of the instrument, and carries an index. The dial is marked off for volts; g g and h h are standards for carrying the pulleys. The action of the instrument is as follows. The current passing through the wire heats it. This current by Ohm's law is proportional to the electro-motive force between the terminals. As it is heated it expands and as it cools contracts, definite expanding and contracting corresponding to definite potential differences. As the wire expands and contracts the block or pin c moves back and forth, thus turning the drum p and cogwheel r one way or permitting it to turn the other way under the pull of the spring S.
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