Definitions for ultra-gaseous matter

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The Standard Electrical Dictionary

  1. Ultra-gaseous Matter

    Gas so rarefied that its molecules do not collide or very rarely do so. Experiments of very striking nature have been devised by Crookes and others to illustrate the peculiar phenomena that this matter presents. The general lines of this work are similar to the methods used in Geissler tube experiments, except that the vacua used are very much higher. When the vacuum is increased so that but one-millionth of the original gas is left the radiant state is reached. The molecules in their kinetic movements beat back and forth in straight lines without colliding, or with very rare collisions. Their motions can be guided and rendered visible by electrification. A tube or small glass bulb with platinum electrodes sealed in it, is exhausted to the requisite degree and is hermetically sealed by melting the glass. The electrodes are connected to the terminals of an induction coil or other source of high tension electrification. The molecules which come in contact with a negatively electrified pole are repelled from it in directions normal to its surface. They produce different phosphorescent or luminous effects in their mutual collisions. Thus if they are made to impinge upon glass, diamond or ruby, intense phosphorescence is produced. A piece of platinum subjected to molecular bombardment is brought to white heat. A movable body can be made to move under their effects. Two streams proceeding from one negative pole repel each other. The stream of molecules can be drawn out of their course by a magnet. The experiments are all done on a small scale in tubes and bulbs, resembling to a certain extent Geissler tubes. [Transcriber's note: These effects are caused by plasma--ionized gas and electrons.]

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