a bitter alkaloid extracted from chinchona bark; used in malaria therapy
A bitter colourless powder, an alkaloid derived from cinchona bark, used to treat malaria and as an ingredient of tonic water.
Origin: From quina, from kina.
an alkaloid extracted from the bark of several species of cinchona (esp. Cinchona Calisaya) as a bitter white crystalline substance, C20H24N2O2. Hence, by extension (Med.), any of the salts of this alkaloid, as the acetate, chloride, sulphate, etc., employed as a febrifuge or antiperiodic. Called also quinia, quinina, etc
Origin: [F. (cf. Sp. quinina), fr. Sp. quina, or quinaquina, Peruvian bark, fr. Peruv. kina, quina, bark. Cf. Kinic.]
Quinine is a natural white crystalline alkaloid having antipyretic, antimalarial, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory properties and a bitter taste. It is a stereoisomer of quinidine which, unlike quinine, is an antiarrhythmic. Quinine contains two major fused-ring systems: the aromatic quinoline and the bicyclic quinuclidine. Though it has been synthesized in the laboratory, quinine occurs naturally in the bark of the cinchona tree. The medicinal properties of the cinchona tree were originally discovered by the Quechua, who are indigenous to Peru and Bolivia; later, the Jesuits were the first to bring cinchona to Europe. Quinine was the first effective treatment for malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum, appearing in therapeutics in the 17th century. It remained the antimalarial drug of choice until the 1940s, when other drugs such as chloroquine that have fewer unpleasant side effects replaced it. Since then, many effective antimalarials have been introduced, although quinine is still used to treat the disease in certain critical circumstances, such as severe malaria, and in impoverished regions due to its low cost. Quinine is available with a prescription in the United States and over-the-counter, in minute quantities, in tonic water. Quinine is also used to treat lupus and arthritis. Quinine was also frequently prescribed in the US as an off-label treatment for nocturnal leg cramps, but this has become less prevalent due to a Food and Drug Administration statement warning against the practice.
Chambers 20th Century Dictionary
kwin′ēn, ki-nēn′, or kwī′nīn, n. a colourless, inodorous, and very bitter alkaloid, obtained from the bark of the Cinchona tree, its salts used for agues and fevers.—ns. Quī′na, the bark of various species of Cinchona; Quinam′ine, a natural white crystalline alkaloid obtained from various Cinchona barks; Quinaquī′na, the bark of various species of Cinchona.—adj. Quin′ic, pertaining to, or derived from, quinine.—ns. Quin′idine, a white crystalline compound, isomeric with quinine, found in some Cinchona barks; Quinol′ogy, the knowledge of quinine and other Cinchona alkaloids. [Fr.,—Sp. and Port. quinina—Peruv. quina, kina, bark.]
The Nuttall Encyclopedia
an alkaloid obtained from the bark of several species of the cinchona tree and others, and which is employed in medicine specially as a ferbrifuge and a tonic.
U.S. National Library of Medicine
An alkaloid derived from the bark of the cinchona tree. It is used as an antimalarial drug, and is the active ingredient in extracts of the cinchona that have been used for that purpose since before 1633. Quinine is also a mild antipyretic and analgesic and has been used in common cold preparations for that purpose. It was used commonly and as a bitter and flavoring agent, and is still useful for the treatment of babesiosis. Quinine is also useful in some muscular disorders, especially nocturnal leg cramps and myotonia congenita, because of its direct effects on muscle membrane and sodium channels. The mechanisms of its antimalarial effects are not well understood.
The numerical value of quinine in Chaldean Numerology is: 6
The numerical value of quinine in Pythagorean Numerology is: 8
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Translations for quinine
From our Multilingual Translation Dictionary
- quininaCatalan, Valencian
- कुनेन की दवाHindi
- кѝнӣн, kìnīnSerbo-Croatian
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