A carcinogenic terpenoid glycoside found in bracken that is poisonous to cattle
Ptaquiloside is the major toxin of bracken, and was first isolated in 1983. Its chemical stereostructure was determined to be norsesquiterpene glucoside of illudane type by Yamada and co-workers. The carcinogenicity of ptaquiloside was proven in 1984, and ptaquiloside was shown to be responsible for the characteristic biological effects of bracken, such as acute bracken poisoning, bright blindness in sheep, mutagenicity, clastogenic effects and genotoxicity. In a weakly alkaline solution, ptaquiloside is gradually converted, with concomitant elimination of glucose, into an unstable compound “dienone”, which is the activated form of ptaquiloside and acts as a powerful alkylating agent. The “dienone” alkylates the purine bases of DNA, and then the alkylated purine parts are spontaneously removed from DNA: subsequently the cleavage of DNA occurs. Prakash and co-workers suggested ptaquiloside-induced carcinogenesis was initiated by the activation of the H-Ras oncogene. From the chemical and ecological viewpoints, quantitative analyses of ptaquiloside in bracken were intensively performed worldwide. The ptaquiloside content of bracken proved to vary: for example, concentrations of ptaquiloside in the dried fronds of bracken were 0.1-0.6%.
The numerical value of ptaquiloside in Chaldean Numerology is: 8
The numerical value of ptaquiloside in Pythagorean Numerology is: 4
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"ptaquiloside." Definitions.net. STANDS4 LLC, 2018. Web. 16 Jan. 2018. <http://www.definitions.net/definition/ptaquiloside>.