Definitions for magnetic elements
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The Standard Electrical Dictionary
The qualities of the terrestrial magnetism at any place as expressed in its action upon the magnetic needle. Three data are involved. I. The Declination or Variation. II. The Inclination or Dip. III. The Force or Intensity. I. The Declination is the variation expressed in angular degrees of the magnetic needle from the true north and south, or is the angle which the plane of the magnetic meridian makes with that of the geographical meridian. It is expressed as east or west variation according to the position of the north pole; east when the north pole of the needle is to the east of the true meridian, and vice versa. Declination is different for different places; it is at present west in Europe and Africa, and east in Asia and the greater part of North and South America. The declination is subject to (a) secular, (b) annual and (c) diurnal variations. These are classed as regular; others due to magnetic storms are transitory and are classed as irregular, (a) Secular variations. The following table shows the secular variations during some three hundred years at Paris. These changes are termed secular, because they require centuries for their completion. 343 Table of Declination or Variation at Paris. Year. Declination. 1580 11º 30' E. 1663 0° 1700 8° 10' W. 1780 19º 55' W. 1785 22º 00' W. 1805 22º 5' W. 1814 22º 34' W. 1825 22° 22' W. 1830 22º 12' W. 1835 22º 4' W. 1850 20º 30' W. 1855 19º 57' W. 1860 19º 32' W. 1865 18º 44' W. 1875 17º 21' W. 1878 17º 00' W. [Transcriber's note The value for 2008 is about 0° 48' W, changing by 0° 7' E/year.] On scrutinizing these figures it will be seen that there is part of a cycle represented and that the declination is slowly returning to the zero point after having reached its maximum western variation in 1814. Upwards of 300 years would be required for its completion on the basis of what is known. In other places, notably the coast of Newfoundland, the Gulf of the St. Lawrence and the rest of the North American seaboard and in the British Channel, the secular variations are much more rapid in progress. (b) Annual variations--These were first discovered in 1780 by Cassini. They represent a cycle of annual change of small extent, from 15' to 18' only. In Paris and London the annual variation is greatest about the vernal equinox, or March 21st, and diminishes for the next three months, and slowly increases again during the nine following months. It varies during different epochs. (c) Diurnal variations were discovered in 1722 by Graham. A long needle has to be employed, or the reflection of a ray of light, as in the reflecting galvanometer, has to be used to observe them. In England the north pole of the magnetic needle moves every day from east to west from sunrise until 1 or 2 P. M.; it then tends towards the east and recovers its original position by 10 P. M. During the night the needle is almost stationary. As regards range the mean amplitude of diurnal variations at Paris is from April to September 13' to 15'; for the other months from 8' to 10'. On some days it amounts to 25' and sometimes is no more than 5'. The amplitude of diurnal variations decreases from the poles to the equator. Irregular variations accompany earthquakes, the aurora borealis and volcanic eruptions. In Polar regions the auroral variations may be very great; even at 40° latitude they may be 1° or 2°. Simultaneous irregularities sometimes extend over large areas. Such are attributed to magnetic storms. II. The Inclination is the angle which the magnetic needle makes with the horiz
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