Definitions for kinetochorekɪˈni təˌkɔr, -ˌkoʊr, -ˈnɛt ə-, kaɪ-
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a specialized condensed region of each chromosome that appears during mitosis where the chromatids are held together to form an X shape
"the centromere is difficult to sequence"
the protein structure in eukaryotes which assembles on the centromere and links the chromosome to microtubule polymers from the mitotic spindle during mitosis
The kinetochore is the protein structure on chromatids where the spindle fibers attach during cell division to pull sister chromatids apart. The kinetochore forms in eukaryotes, assembles on the centromere and links the chromosome to microtubule polymers from the mitotic spindle during mitosis and meiosis. "Monocentric" organisms, including vertebrates, fungi, and most plants, have a single centromeric region on each chromosome which assembles one kinetochore. "Holocentric" organisms, such as nematodes and some plants, assemble a kinetochore along the entire length of a chromosome. The kinetochore contains two regions: ⁕an inner kinetochore, which is tightly associated with the centromere DNA, assembled in a specialized form of chromatin persistent throughout the cell cycle; ⁕an outer kinetochore, which interacts with microtubules; the outer kinetochore is a very dynamic structure, with many identical components, which are assembled and functional only during cell division. Kinetochores start, control and supervise the striking movements of chromosomes during cell division. During mitosis, which occurs after chromosomes are duplicated during S phase, two sister chromatids are held together each with its own kinetochore which face in opposing directions and attach to opposite poles of the mitotic spindle. Following the transition from metaphase to anaphase, the sister chromatids separate from each other, and the individual kinetochores on each chromatid drive their movement to the spindle poles that will define the two new daughter cells. Thus, the kinetochore is essential for the chromosome segregation that is classically associated with mitosis and meiosis.
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