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  1. Icel

    The Iclingas were a dynasty of Kings of Mercia during the 7th and 8th centuries, named for Icel, great-grandson of Offa of Angel, a legendary or semi-legendary migration age figure who was in turn considered a descendant of Woden. The Iclingas reached the height of their power under Offa of Mercia, who achieved hegemony over the other Anglo-Saxon states, and proclaimed himself "King of the English", but the dynasty lost control of Mercia soon after his death. Penda, who became king of Mercia in about 626 and is the first king named in the regnal lists of the Anglian collection, and at the same time the last pagan king of Mercia, gave rise to a dynasty that supplied at least eleven kings to the throne of Mercia. Four additional monarchs were given an Icling pedigree in later genealogical sources but are now believed to have descended from the family by way of Penda's sister. Icel himself is of doubtful historicity; if historical he would have flourished during the first half of the 6th century, during the later phase, or within living memory, of the Anglo-Saxon migration; despite the claims of ties from continental Angeln, Brooks has suggested the Iclings more likely to have come from local origins in Mercia. He suggested that before Penda they may have been rulers of a "small Midlands people" with around 300 to 600 hides of land. Icel's ancestry in genealogical tradition is as follows: Icel son of Eomer son of Angeltheow son of Offa son of Wermund son of Wihtlæg son of Woden. In this tradition, Icel is the leader of the Angles who migrated to Britain. Icel is then separated from the establishment of Mercia by three generations: Icel's son was Cnebba, whose son was Cynewald, whose son was Creoda, first king of Mercia.

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