Definitions for gallic acid
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a colorless crystalline acid obtained from tannin
a phenolic carboxylic acid, 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, found in galls, tea, the bark of some trees etc; a constituent of tannin
the supposed acid HGaO, the acid form of the amphoteric gallium hydroxide Ga(OH), known only as alkali metal salts
Gallic acid is a trihydroxybenzoic acid, a type of phenolic acid, a type of organic acid, also known as 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, found in gallnuts, sumac, witch hazel, tea leaves, oak bark, and other plants. The chemical formula is C6H2(OH)3COOH. Gallic acid is found both free and as part of hydrolyzable tannins. Salts and esters of gallic acid are termed 'gallates'. Despite its name, it does not contain gallium. Gallic acid is commonly used in the pharmaceutical industry. It is used as a standard for determining the phenol content of various analytes by the Folin-Ciocalteau assay; results are reported in gallic acid equivalents. Gallic acid can also be used as a starting material in the synthesis of the psychedelic alkaloid mescaline. Gallic acid seems to have anti-fungal and anti-viral properties. Gallic acid acts as an antioxidant and helps to protect human cells against oxidative damage. Gallic acid was found to show cytotoxicity against cancer cells, without harming healthy cells. Gallic acid is used as a remote astringent in cases of internal haemorrhage. Gallic acid is also used to treat albuminuria and diabetes. Some ointments to treat psoriasis and external haemorrhoids contain gallic acid.
U.S. National Library of Medicine
A colorless or slightly yellow crystalline compound obtained from nutgalls. It is used in photography, pharmaceuticals, and as an analytical reagent.
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