A royal decree issued by a sovereign in certain historical Islamic states, especially by the Sultan of Turkey.
in Turkey and some other Oriental countries, a decree or mandate issued by the sovereign; a royal order or grant; -- generally given for special objects, as to a traveler to insure him protection and assistance
Origin: [Pers. fermn.]
A firman or ferman at the constitutional level was a royal mandate or decree issued by a sovereign in certain historical Islamic states, including the Ottoman Empire, Mughal Empire, State of Hyderabad, and Iran under Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi. During various periods they were collected and applied as traditional bodies of law. The word firman comes from the Persian: farmân meaning "decree" or "order". In Turkish it is called a ferman. On a more practical level, a firman was, and may still be, any written permission granted by the appropriate Islamic official at any level of government. Westerners are perhaps most familiar with the permission to travel in a country, which typically could be purchased beforehand, or the permission to conduct scholarly investigation in the country, such as archaeological excavation. Firmans may or may not be combined with various sorts of passports.
Chambers 20th Century Dictionary
fėr′man, or fer-män′, n. any decree emanating from the Turkish government. [Pers. fermán; Sans. pramâna, command.]
The Nuttall Encyclopedia
a Persian word denoting a mandate or decree; among the Turks the term is applied to such decrees as issue from the Ottoman Porte, and also to passports, the right of signing which lies with the Sultan or a Pasha; the word is also used in India to denote a permit to trade.
The numerical value of firman in Chaldean Numerology is: 3
The numerical value of firman in Pythagorean Numerology is: 7
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