Definitions for cavitationˌkæv ɪˈteɪ ʃən
Random House Webster's College Dictionary
cav•i•ta•tionˌkæv ɪˈteɪ ʃən(n.)
the rapid formation and collapse of vapor pockets in a flowing liquid in regions of very low pressure, often causing structural damage to propellers, pumps, etc.
the formation of cavities, esp in a part of the body.
Origin of cavitation:
1890–95; cavit (y ) + -ation
cav′i•tate`(v.t.; v.i.)-tat•ed, -tat•ing.
The formation of pits on a surface.
The formation, in a fluid, of vapor bubbles that rapidly collapse; especially in a rotating marine propeller or pump impeller.
The formation of cavities in an organ, especially in lung tissue as a result of tuberculosis.
Cavitation is the formation and then immediate implosion of cavities in a liquid – i.e. small liquid-free zones – that are the consequence of forces acting upon the liquid. It usually occurs when a liquid is subjected to rapid changes of pressure that cause the formation of cavities where the pressure is relatively low. Cavitation is a significant cause of wear in some engineering contexts. When entering high pressure areas, cavitation bubbles that implode on a metal surface cause cyclic stress through repeated implosion. This results in surface fatigue of the metal causing a type of wear also called "cavitation". The most common examples of this kind of wear are pump impellers and bends when a sudden change in the direction of liquid occurs. Cavitation is usually divided into two classes of behavior: inertial cavitation and non-inertial cavitation. Inertial cavitation is the process where a void or bubble in a liquid rapidly collapses, producing a shock wave. Inertial cavitation occurs in nature in the strikes of mantis shrimps and pistol shrimps, as well as in the vascular tissues of plants. In man-made objects, it can occur in control valves, pumps, propellers and impellers.
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