Definitions for basaltbəˈsɔlt, ˈbæs ɔlt, ˈbeɪ sɔlt
This page provides all possible meanings and translations of the word basalt
Random House Webster's College Dictionary
ba•saltbəˈsɔlt, ˈbæs ɔlt, ˈbeɪ sɔlt(n.)
the dark, dense, igneous rock of a lava flow or minor intrusion, composed essentially of labradorite and pyroxene and often displaying a columnar structure.
Origin of basalt:
1595–1605; < L basaltēs < Gk basanitēs=básan(os) touchstone (ult. < Egyptian bhn(w) graywacke) +-ītēs -ite1
the commonest type of solidified lava; a dense dark grey fine-grained igneous rock that is composed chiefly of plagioclase feldspar and pyroxene
A hard rock of varied mineral content; volcanic in origin, it makes up much of the Earth's oceanic crust.
A type of unglazed pottery.
a rock of igneous origin, consisting of augite and triclinic feldspar, with grains of magnetic or titanic iron, and also bottle-green particles of olivine frequently disseminated
an imitation, in pottery, of natural basalt; a kind of black porcelain
Basalt is a common extrusive igneous rock formed from the rapid cooling of basaltic lava exposed at or very near the surface of a planet or moon. By definition, basalt is an aphanitic igneous rock with less than 20% quartz and less than 10% feldspathoid by volume, and where at least 65% of the feldspar is in the form of plagioclase. Basalt is usually grey to black in colour, but rapidly weathers to brown or rust-red due to oxidation of its mafic minerals into rust. It almost always has a fine-grained mineral texture due to the molten rock cooling too quickly for large mineral crystals to grow, although it can sometimes be porphyritic, containing the larger crystals formed prior to the extrusion that brought the lava to the surface, embedded in a finer-grained matrix. Basalt with a vesicular or frothy texture is called scoria, and forms when dissolved gases are forced out of solution and form vesicles as the lava decompresses as it reaches the surface. On Earth, most basalt magmas have formed by decompression melting of the mantle. Basalt commonly erupts on Io, the third largest moon of Jupiter, and has also formed on Earth's Moon, Mars, Venus, and the asteroid Vesta. Source rocks for the partial melts probably include both peridotite and pyroxenite. The crustal portions of oceanic tectonic plates are composed predominantly of basalt, produced from upwelling mantle below ocean ridges.
Translations for basalt
Kernerman English Multilingual Dictionary
any of certain types of dark-coloured rock.
- basaltoPortuguese (BR)
- der BasaltGerman
- βασάλτης (είδος πετρώματος)Greek
- مرمر سیاهFarsi
- batu hitam, basalIndonesian
- مرمر سیاهPersian
- يو ډول تيږه چي تياره رنگ لريPashto
- bazalt, yanık taşTurkish
- 玄武岩Chinese (Trad.)
- 玄武岩，黑陶器Chinese (Simp.)
Get even more translations for basalt »
Find a translation for the basalt definition in other languages:
Select another language: