Definitions for Mitochondrionˌmaɪ təˈkɒn dri ən; -dri ə
This page provides all possible meanings and translations of the word Mitochondrion
Random House Webster's College Dictionary
mi•to•chon•dri•onˌmaɪ təˈkɒn dri ən; -dri ə(n.)(pl.)-dri•a
an organelle in the cell cytoplasm that has its own DNA, inherited solely from the maternal line, and that produces enzymes essential for energy metabolism.
Category: Cell Biology
Ref: Abbr.: mt 2; See diag. at cell. 1 art
Origin of mitochondrion:
1900–05; < Gk míto(s) thread +chóndrion small grain
an organelle containing enzymes responsible for producing energy
A spherical or ovoid organelle found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, contains genetic material separate from that of the host; it is responsible for the conversion of food to usable energy in the form of ATP.
Origin: From + , diminutive of
Mitochondria are membrane-enclosed structures found in most eukaryotic cells. These organelles range from 0.5 to 1.0 micrometer in diameter. Mitochondria are sometimes described as "cellular power plants" because they generate most of the cell's supply of adenosine triphosphate, used as a source of chemical energy. In addition to supplying cellular energy, mitochondria are involved in other tasks such as signaling, cellular differentiation, cell death, as well as the control of the cell cycle and cell growth. Mitochondria have been implicated in several human diseases, including mitochondrial disorders and cardiac dysfunction, and may play a role in the aging process. The word mitochondrion comes from the Greek μίτος, mitos, i.e. "thread", and χονδρίον, chondrion, i.e. "granule". Several characteristics make mitochondria unique. The number of mitochondria in a cell varies widely by organism and tissue type. Many cells have only a single mitochondrion, whereas others can contain several thousand mitochondria. The organelle is composed of compartments that carry out specialized functions. These compartments or regions include the outer membrane, the intermembrane space, the inner membrane, and the cristae and matrix. Mitochondrial proteins vary depending on the tissue and the species. In humans, 615 distinct types of proteins have been identified from cardiac mitochondria, whereas in Murinae, 940 proteins encoded by distinct genes have been reported. The mitochondrial proteome is thought to be dynamically regulated. Although most of a cell's DNA is contained in the cell nucleus, the mitochondrion has its own independent genome. Further, its DNA shows substantial similarity to bacterial genomes.
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