Definitions for Daltons law
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The total pressure of a mixture or gases is the sum of the partial pressures of each gas in the mixture; it is only true for ideal gases.
When two elements can combine to form more than one compound then the amounts of one which combines with a fixed amount of the other will have a simple multiple relationship.
Origin: From John Dalton, English chemist
In chemistry and physics, Dalton's law states that in a mixture of non-reacting gasses, the total pressure exerted is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of the individual gases. This empirical law was observed by John Dalton in 1801 and is related to the ideal gas laws. Mathematically, the pressure of a mixture of non-reactive gases can be defined as the summation or where represent the partial pressure of each component. where is the mole fraction of the i-th component in the total mixture of n components . The relationship below provides a way to determine the volume based concentration of any individual gaseous component where is the concentration of the i-th component expressed in ppm. Dalton's law is not strictly followed by real gases with deviations being considerably large at high pressures. Under such conditions the volume occupied by the molecules can become significant compared to the free space between them. In particular, the short average distances between molecules raises the intensity of intermolecular forces between gas molecules enough to substantially change the pressure exerted by them. Neither of those effects are considered by the ideal gas model.
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