Definitions for ARD
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A simple plough consisting of a spike dragged through the soil.
The ard is a rudimentary plough that is light, without a mouldboard, symmetrical on either side of its line of draft, and fitted with a symmetrical share that traces a shallow furrow but does not invert the soil. In its simplest form it resembles a hoe, consisting of a draft-pole pierced with a nearly vertical, wooden, spiked head which is dragged through the soil by draft animals and very rarely by people. The ard-head is at one end a stilt for steering and at the other a share which gouges the surface ground. More sophisticated models have a composite pole, where the section attached to the head is called the draft-beam, and the share may be made of stone or iron. Some have a cross-bar for handles or two separate stilts for handles. The share comes in two basic forms: a socket share slipped over the nose of the ard-head; and the tang share fitted into a groove where it is held with a clamp on the wooden head. Additionally, a slender protruding chisel can be fitted over the top of the mainshare.
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